The prevailing total ignorance of the causes of variation was a constant worry to Darwin. Always bearing adaptation in mind, he could only conclude: "Till we know uses of organs clearly, we cannot guess causes of change" II He was reduced to wrestling with William Yarrell's view that the oldest variety has the greatest effect on offspring in a cross II 1 , but was careful to remind himself to "give it" as Yarrell's theory.
Later, II he gave it up. The difference between sports or mutations which were already recognized as inherited and minor variability which was so important for transmutation by imperceptible steps led Darwin to believe that there were "Two kinds of varieties. One approaching to nature of monster, [is] hereditary, [the] other [is] adaptation" II 4. Darwin already realized clearly that adaptation was a phenomenon of varying efficiency and that organisms could be imperfectly adapted to their environment I , In one striking passage he anticipated the principle of the phenocopy: "If puppy born with thick coat [in temperate climate it is] a monstrosity, [but if the puppy is] brought into a cold country and [a thick coat] is then acquired, then [it is an] adaptation" II Admission of possible imperfection in Nature is shown in the following; "Even a deformity may be looked at as the best attempt of nature under very unfavoured conditions as an adaptation" II He realized that the phenomenon of the ptarmigan and hare becoming white in winter are not caused by the direct effect of the environment by physical action, but are instances of adaptation II 84 , and this example shows how closely variation and adaptation were associated in his mind.
This [is] really perhaps greatest difficulty to whole theory" II The recognition of adaptations often requires ingenuity, as in the following case: "Wax of ear bitter, perhaps to prevent insects lodging there" II It was the fact of anomalies of geographical distribution that first brought Darwin up against the problem of transmutation.
He soon saw that the distribution of large mammals was significant: "There is this great advantage in studying geograph: range of quadrupeds; that either created in each point, or migrated from those quarters where we know quadrupeds have existed for ages" II Geographical distribution introduced the possibility of isolation of groups on a grand scale: "Have the Edentata and Marsupials forms been chiefly preserved where shut up by themselves without other animals? America and yet in Africa and India?
Related representative species in different regions interested him greatly: "Buzzards in Patagonia and in Chile a good case of replacement" II 56 ; "Once grant my theory and the examination of species from distant countries may give thread to conduct to laws of change of organization" II Darwin realized that if species had not been separated and specially created, there must have been a mechanism of evolution.
Before he hit upon the principle of natural selection his views on this problem could not be very precise, but the notion of competition appears in the following passage, albeit without defined penalties for the losers: "Once grant that species and genus may pass into each other, grant that one instinct to be acquired if the medullary point in ovum has such organization as to force in one man the developement of a brain capable of producing more glowing imagining or more profound reasoning than other, if this be granted and whole fabric [of special creation of species] totters and falls" II The penalties make their appearance in the following: "The constitution being hereditary and fixed certain physical changes [in the environment] at last become unfit [for the organism] the animal cannot change quick enough and perishes" II He also wondered "Whether species may not be made by a little more vigour being given to the chance offspring" II Isolation is part of the mechanism: "Nature conscious of the principle of incessant change in her offspring has invented all kinds of plan to insure sterility, but isolate your species [and] her plans are frustrated" II It has not been explained how and why Darwin adopted a mechanistic viewpoint at a time when religious orthodoxy permeated science and philosophy, but there is no mistaking it in the following passages: "Why is thought being a secretion of brain, more wonderful than gravity a property of matter?
He even referred to mental processes as "machinery": Animals "can reason but man has reasoning power in excess. Instead of definite instincts his is a replacement in mental machinery so analogous to what we see in bodily that it does not stagger me" II The following remark needs no comment: "Love of the deity effect of organization, oh, you materialist!
Although the Second Notebook on Transmutation of Species was started in the beginning of February and finished in July of the same year, Darwin added lists of books to be read and read at dates subsequent to July Among these books under the date 3 October, is listed Malthus on Population, which enables the. The significance of this information will be pointed out in the Introduction to the Third Notebook on Transmutation of Species.
As in the other Notebooks, a number of pages were cut out by Darwin in when he began to write the work of which he Origin of Species was an abstract. Darwin's Second Notebook on Transmutation of Species, also known as Notebook "C", is Darwin MS in the Cambridge University Library, to the authorities of which acknowledgement is warmly made for their unfailing assistance and courtesy. Effects of colour on parent, white room. How are varieties…? Books about amount of difference when hybrids produced have any close species ever yet failed.
About trades affecting form of man. Could you get racehorse from cart horse…. Mr Yarrell 1 give it as his theory tells me he had no doubt that oldest variety takes greatest effect on offspring.
Thus presuming those varieties to be oldest which have long been known in any country, he states that Esquimaux dog when crossed with pointer produced offspring much nearer Esquimaux than Pointer. He has ditto doubt that chestnut for many generations back was crossed with Bay mare, only by a few generations, that offspring would be chestnut. Yarrell states that if any odd pidgeon crossed with common pidgeon, offspring must be like latter, because oldest variety. Yet dogs sometimes like father, sometimes like mother.
These facts all account for excised. Birds of Australia. Many in common? It is clothed with a plumage having the characteristic looseness of that of the terrestrial birds deprived of the power of flight …" Presumably Darwin heard Owen deliver this paper or discuss it beforehand. Paris , p. American forms? An Infusorian not extinct species. Bull: Soc. D'Urville on the Distrib. Get Henslow 5 to read over the pages from about 8 to 20 of Zoologie of Coquille's Voyage to see if Lesson's remarks 6 on the Flora can be trusted.
Coquille Voyage p. Many fish of Taiti found at Isle of France: 8 instance of wide range, when means of wide range says same remark with regard to shells. Jenyns 9 about my fish New Zealand and New Holland fish very similar. L'Institut, tome 6, Paris , p. Zoologie: Rongeurs australasiens. C'est une vraie Gerboise Dipus des plaines centrales de la Nouvelle-Hollande.
L'Institut, tome 6, , p. Ehrenberg lit une note sur les masses que forment les infusoires siliceuses. France, tome 9, , p. Paris , tome 1, pp. Beagle London Louis de Freycinet, tome 4, Paris , p. It would make strong contrast with southern regions. Vespertilio bonariensis from Buenos Ayres holds same relation with equator that Vesp. Rabbits introduced in 64 of very many colours, like the cattle which I say "are as variously coloured as a herd in England. Galapagos mouse not the same section with house mice.
It is wonderful how it could have been transported? What section does the New Zealand Rat belong to. There is this great advantage in studying geograph. The most hypoth: part of my theory, that two varieties of many ages standing, will not readily breed together. The argument must thus be taken, as in wild state where instinct not interfered with, or generative organs affected as with plants no animals very different will breed together, so when two great which can be shown probable varieties may be made in wild state, there will be presumption that they would not breed together.
Voyage autour du Monde…Zoologie, Paris , tome 1, p. Ces derniers, venus de Madagascar,…tandisque le singe Macacus sinicus, Des. These therefore will be chiefly hereditary. In first case it will either produce no offspring or such as not capable of producing again. The two species of Clenonga case of replacing species. Dr Smith 2 will give me some capital information. Carnivora of New and Old wor[l]d do not form two sections, is this not connected with wide range of animals. Follow this out where species of same genera in 36 […?
But they were not shut up!! Extreme southern points of S. Hemisphere fully characterized of each continent. Try amongst European quadrupeds if Africa destroyed would not then some forms. The reference appears to be to Owen's Lectures. In the Syllabus of an elementary course of lectures on comparative anatomy by Richard Owen to be delivered at St. Bartholomew's Hospital during April and May , in the analysis of Lectures IV and V, on page 5, appear the words:—"Changes effected in the nervous and other systems during the metamorphoses of insects.
The Zoology of the Voyage of H. Beagle, Part II. Mammalia by George Robert Waterhouse. London , p. The reference is presumably to "Further remarks on the affinities of the feathered race," Mag. Hist Lond. America destroyed great Edentata or American form. The climates having grown more extreme both in N. Certainly Africa approaches nearest to what is supposed to have been condition of former whole world.
America must have been string of islands. The systematic naturalists get clear indication of circumstances in Geography to help in distinguishing empirically what is species. Increase of knowledge would probably tell more certainly. Get closer species. Foxes good case on account of varieties in N. Mice of America. Africa Bears?? Plantigrade carnivora?? Fact of Elephant same species in Borneo Sumatra India Ceylon—perhaps show great persistency of character.
Colonel Montagu 2 probably contains some facts about close species of Birds. On page —"…I think, that there are strong grounds for believing that the Dingo, or native dog,…is not an aboriginal inhabitant of the continent, but a subsequent importation, in all probability contemporary with the primitive settlement of the natives. On page —"were it not for the strong chestnut colour the Kentish Plover is said to possess on the crown of the head, as described by Lewin, and since by Dr Latham in the Second Synopsis to the General Synopsis, we should not have hesitated in pronouncing these three birds to be only one species.
Feathers on Apteryx because we may suppose longest part of structure. There must be some sophism in Lyell's statement 1 that some species vary more than what makes species in other animals. Forster on South Sea 2 will probably contain description of domesticated animals in those regions. Species so far are not natural that they are either A. Very striking to see M. Bibron 3 looking over reptiles he often had difficulty in distinguishing which were species theory admirably yet a glance would tell from which country.
American genera. Principles of Geology, vol. London , refers only to hog, dog, and cock among the domestic animals. William Whewell, President of the Society. On page —"The gradation in form between man and other animals, a gradation which we all recognise, and which, therefore, need not startle us because it is presented under a new aspect, is but a slight and, as appears to me, unimportant feature, in looking at the great subject of man's origin.
D'Orbigny p. This good case of replacement under peculiar conditions—of nearly same kind country distant. All nature answers to the possibility. Does not atavism relate to this law? Local varieties formed with extreme slowness even when isolation from general circumstances effecting the area equably.
Animals having wide range, by preventing adaptation owing to crossing with unseasoned people would cause destruction. Descent, or true relationship, tends to keep the species to one form but is modified. See Abercrombie 2 p. III p. Relations of resemblance and analogy…When there is a close agreement between two events or classes of events, it constitutes resemblance; where there are points of difference, it is analogy.
In the latter case, we then trace the degrees of analogy, depending upon the number of points in which the resemblance holds, and the number of points in which there is a difference. Ditto p. Vigors, 1 nothing of much interest. Plane trees all died certain year. Extreme difficulty of tracing change of species to species although we see it effected tempts one to bring one back to distinct creations. Even a deformity may be looked at as the best attempt of nature under certain very unfavoured conditions,—as an adaptation, but adaptation during earliest existence; if whole life then real adaptation.
No Common Vultures in Australia 3!! Wilsons ornithology, vol. Study Bonapartes 6 list. In the Zoological Journal 7 I read a curious account to show that very many birds of different kinds have been known to assist in feeding young cuckoos; as if there was storge [strong urge], which could not be resisted, when hearing cry of hunger of. American Ornithology, vol.
Travels in Brazil in , London In same way Wilson 1 p. Desert country is as effectual as a cold one in checking beautiful colours of species. Jago; solitary Halcyon bird of passage. Yarrell says that some birds or animals are placed in white rooms to give tinge to 69 offspring. Darkness effect on human offspring.
Passages from the American Notebooks, Volume 2. by Nathaniel Hawthorne
Swainson's remarks in Fauna Borealis 3 must be studied. There is capital talk of extent of all species. Accumulate instances of one family sending out structures into many genera, —like Synallaxis or Marsupial animals of 70 N. Hence it is universally allowed that the discrimination of species is empirical. Show this by instances. When talking of races of man, —black men, black bull finches from linseed, —notably effects of climate on some antecedent race perhaps not one now existing. Study the wars of organic being.
American Ornithology, London , vol. Part II, the Birds, London The reference is to the production of great effects as a result of slow action over great periods of time, which is the basis of the Principles of Geology. Once grant that species and genus may pass into each other, —grant that one instinct to be acquired if the medullary point in ovum has such organization as to force in one man the developement of a brain capable of producing more glowing imagining or more profound reasoning than other, if this be granted!!
The fabric falls! But man — wonderful man "divino ore versum coelum attentior" is an exception. They on other hand can reason —but man has reasoning powers in excess, instead 78 of definite instincts —this is a replacement in mental machinery so analogous to what we see in bodily, that it does not stagger me.
Yet all forming, according to Gould, 1 good genus. This must be profoundly considered. Birds vary much more than shells owing to variety of station inhabited by them. Australian forms amongst birds Java, not so much. This congenital changes show that grandson is determined, 84 when child is,— shows that generation implies more than mere child, but that child should produce like children.
Lyell has story from Beck 1 about six fingered children hereditary. With respect to question which is adaptation, —examine ptarmigan, hare becoming white in winter of Arctic countries few will say it is direct effect, according to 85 Physical laws, as sulphuric acid disorganizes wood, but adaptation. The circumstance of aberrant groups being small it is truism, for if not so not aberrant. Taenioptera rufiventris is instance of bird belonging to family with peculiar coloured plumage, where colours have changed in accordance to habits, —one is tempted to suppose from beholding the ground.
Gould insist much upon knowing to what type a bird belongs. Pelagic forms—similar birds?? Hemisphere just anterior to present.? The 5th edition of the Principles of Geology has three references to Dr J. Beck of Copenhagen, quoted for geological observations. The present reference appears to be to a personal communication to Lyell. Henslow 1 in talking of so many families on Keeling seemed to consider it owing to one of each being fitter for transport.
Examine Abrolhos Flora with this view. Tristan D'acunha. Agasziz 1 No. Annals of Nat.
FNC-31: Summer 2016
Treviranus Biologie 6 referred to as compilation of action of organic nature on inorganic. This paper might be worth consulting if any metaphysical speculations are entered on upon life, namely Carus. The highest endowment of lofty genius. Paris In this work Lamarck put forward the view that Nature had unlimited time at her disposal. Yarrel — says 1 my view of varieties is exactly what I state, —or picking varieties unnatural circumstance.
L d Orfords had breed of greyhounds fleetest in England lost courage at end of chase would not run up hill. Sir J. Yarrell will mention in his work. I am sorry to find Mr. Yarrell's evidence about old varieties is reduced to scarcely anything, —almost all imagination —He says he recollects all half Bred cattle of L d Darnleys were most like parent Brahmin bulls —Mr. What the Frenchman did for species between England and France I will do with forms. It is of the utmost importance to show that habits sometimes go before structure.
Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, vol. A History of British Birds, London See what Eytons young pigs 1 —if vertebra much lengthened or there may be tendency to divide which often enough repeated would cause an unequal number of vertebrae—. When two very close species inhabit same country are not habits different. Gould's willow wren 2 but when close species inhabit different countries habits similar? Mr Herbert's 3 law, habits determining fertility.
SUMMER 2016 QUARTERLY EDITION
It is reverting to old plan but reason now assigned for doing so. Analogy to be guide in islands species, — each describer giving his test namely differ as much as those naming them which are found together. If two species come over to this country without range or habits ascertained, put them as a b until data be given. This is reform which probably will be slow but must take place. The Birds of Europe, vol. Description of Willow-wren, Chiff-chaff, and Wood-wren, including the differences in their songs and habits.
Report of the Expedition for exploring central Africa from the Cape of Good Hope… l, under the superintendence of… A. Smith, Cape Town, The caves are at a height of more than ft. Major Mitchell does not think that dog was found in Van Diemens land. Number of Geographical Journal to discover whether dog found at Swan River. Sebright pamphlet 5 most important showing effects of peculiarities being long in blood. Fully supported by Mr. Shows instinct Sir J. Sebright admirable essay hereditary journey wild ducks.
Sebright excellent authority because written on dog. Barking—applies it to national character. Three expeditions into the interior of eastern Australia, with descriptions of the recently explored region of Australia Felix, and of the present colony of New South Wales, London , vol. The caves and their contents were first reported by Major T. Mitchell: "An account of the limestone caves at Wellington Valley, and of the situation, near one of them, where fossil bones have been found. New Phil, Journ. The source where Darwin found this reference was no doubt Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology, vol.
Observations upon the instinct of Animals, London Sebright", London If two species were excessively old they would not make hybrids, whereas two newer ones even if more different might do so,—is this true?? My views which would even lead to anticipate mules is very important for Lyell said to me the fact of existence of mules appeared to him most strange.
Dr Beck 1 doubt of local varieties should be remembered. Therefore do not consider it as proved that they are varieties though that would be best. Argue the case theoretically if animals did change excessively slowly whether 2 geologists would not find fossils such as they are.
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The relation of all cock birds in Gallinaceous having tendency to [..? Genus only natural from death or slow propagation of forms—just same way as all men not all equally related to each other. I should think meaning of circular arrangement was only so far true as avoided linear arrangement the central twigs dying, affinities would be in broken circles—which in each group is quite fatal. In analogy it is not the relation to bear to each other but to some external contingency. Yet each family might have its own character. When one reads in Ehrenberg's Paper on Infusoria 1 on the enormous production—millions in few days—one doubt that one animal can really produce so great an effect.
Gould says it is only in large groups where you have representations. Mr Blyth 5 remark that a resemblance between some forms in birds is visible when young but not when old,—thus speckled form of young blackbird good remark if general. The widow bird, which is a weaver, inhabits South Africa while the Birds of Paradise inhabit Australia. Gould's opinion was probably a personal communication to Darwin.
L'Institut, tome 5, , P. Now some such characters rule are used by naturalists in their test of value of character. Macleay letter 1 to Fleming 2 p. Smith 3 know lots of instances of replacement of one species by another, supply place in each others economy. A species is only fixed thing with reference to other living being.
As species is real thing with regard to contemporaries—fertility must settle it. Cape Town Animals have voice so has man. Not saltus but hiatus; hence if sickness death, unequal life—stimulated by same passions, brought into the world same way, animals expression of countenance. They may convey much thus. Man has expression. They know the cry of pain as well as we.
It is our arrogance, to raise on the same shelf to look at common ancestor scarcely conceivable in savages precludes [? Has not the white man, who has debased his nature by making slave of his fellow Black, often wished to consider him as other animal. We now know what is the natural arrangement. A tree is taken by Fleming 1 as emblem of dichotomous arrangement which is false. There is same difficulty in arranging animals in paper as drying plant, all brought in one plane. Fleming Quarterly review says 2 nat: fam: of willows contains many Linnaean genera.
In considering fossil animals, what relation in classification in books, ought they to hold. Birds having web-feet when we see scarcely any traces of passage a difficulty but after all a slight one. It will be necessary from manner Fleming treats subject to put in alternative of man created by distinct miracle.
Macleay letter 3 to Dr. Lamarck bears to Cuvier that relation of theoretical astronomer to plain observer 6. Macleay 7 seems to limit Lamarck definition of relations to settling the relative importance of the organs in same state in different animals. But the classification must chiefly rest. The Philosophy of Zoology, vol. The reference to a tree is probably taken from William Sharp Macleay: "A letter on the dying struggle of the Dichotomous System, London , p.
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A Letter on the dying struggle of the Dichotomous System, London , p. The last entry among the mammals on page 77 is Delphinus in the group Cete, after which immediately come the birds the first of which on page 86 are the Accipitres, beginning with Vultur. Macleay rests his whole groundwork of analogy on its concurrence in parallel parts of his series, i. Impassioned pedantry is every bit as ridiculous and dangerous as the wildest sectarianism and demagogy. This is a critical conclusion with relevance far beyond the time Gramsci was writing for.
Pedantry and hyper-rationalism abound, particularly in debates online: writers and commenters vie for the most logical and rational argument and are shocked when it rarely convinces. Taken as a whole, the book contains a challenging set of writings to get through. View 2 comments. I browsed these lovely 3 volumes in the store last evening as a winter storm was gathering- does anyone have anything to say re: are these big things worth my time?
They look so enchanting View all 6 comments. Gramsci was one of the most important, original and influential marxist writers of the 20th Century. He wrote extensively on the role of intellectuals, on education, history, politics, culture, the modern state and philosophy.
The Prison Notebooks was written between and , when Gramsci was a prisoner of the Italian fascist state under Mussolini. He developed the concept of 'hegemony', arguing that the ruling class sustained its control of society and the state through hegemonic dominati Gramsci was one of the most important, original and influential marxist writers of the 20th Century.
He developed the concept of 'hegemony', arguing that the ruling class sustained its control of society and the state through hegemonic domination of education, culture, sport, religion etc. Working class revolution whould therefore only succeed if the struggle was broadened from that in trhe work place to a broad based struggle involving the contestation of control and space in education, culture, sport, the community etc.
Dec 17, Andrea rated it it was amazing Shelves: theory. The sense of achievement after finishing this is similar to that of finishing Capital Gramsci is so often referenced, however, I took many of his ideas rather for granted. After reading him for myself, I'd say there is more of interest here, and more that I find problematic than I'd ever expected Hegemony and common sense, political struggle, popular educati The sense of achievement after finishing this is similar to that of finishing Capital Hegemony and common sense, political struggle, popular education and not so popular education , it's all here Jun 11, sologdin rated it really liked it Shelves: leftwing-theory.
Jun 14, Jake rated it it was amazing Shelves: favorites , western-marxism. Jul 15, David Anderson rated it really liked it. This is another of those classics of Marxist thought that I'd never got around to reading, though I was acquainted with ideas and passages from it in other sources, much like Marx's Capital. Having finally studied all three volumes of that over the past couple of years with the help of David Harvey's video lectures , I decided I needed to tackle Gramsci next.
It was definitely worth the time and effort. I was acquainted with certain Gramscian concepts through secondary sources, such as "cultura This is another of those classics of Marxist thought that I'd never got around to reading, though I was acquainted with ideas and passages from it in other sources, much like Marx's Capital. I was acquainted with certain Gramscian concepts through secondary sources, such as "cultural hegemony" and "organic intellectuals" and "passive revolution.
The static and fatalistic vision of laws of history existing outside human activity and acting on their own was already challenged by Engels himself at the end of his life, and Gramsci picks up right where he left off. By stressing that only mankind itself can set into motion the laws of historical materialism, Gramsci brings back the importance of human agency and praxis into Marxist ideology.
Most of the final section "The Philosophy of Praxis" is devoted to this and it is my favorite section of the book. I would recommend that everyone should at least read that part of the book if nothing else. View 1 comment. Sep 27, Colm Gillis rated it it was amazing. Although not a Marxist, I found this to be a masterpiece.
The work itself are notes collected from the authors time in prison under Mussolini. So many topics are covered outside of the economy and revolution. There are a variety of interesting theories and the author subjects even points of view close to him to criticism.
He raises many issues and identifies various problems with strands of philosophy. There is some Marxist dogma and some of his views do suffer from a materialist rigidity but th Although not a Marxist, I found this to be a masterpiece. There is some Marxist dogma and some of his views do suffer from a materialist rigidity but there is generally so much to recommend. I read all three volumes and I don't regret a single second I spent reading Gramsci. This edition promised to be one of the best foreign language versions of the Notebooks in addition to Italian, complete translations are available in French, German, Spanish.
It's a pity it ground to a halt after Notebook 8. Feb 20, Owen rated it it was amazing. Italian marxist, predecessor to cultural studies. An invaluable conceptualization of hegemony. One of my favorite quotes of all time - we have to create an inventory of all the traces historical processes have left upon us in order to begin critical elaboration to understand ourselves and the world. Mar 25, Shannon rated it it was ok. Reading this today for my orals exam.
Not understanding it at all and don't have the energy to try harder. I think I'm just going to hope that no one asks me questions about this one I plan to spend much of the Spring and most of the summer of studying these volumes. Jun 06, Christoph rated it really liked it. The Italian fascist regime wanted to shut down Gramsci's brain when they imprisoned him.
They failed. Gramsci was an orthodox revolutionary historical materialist. People act like he is some post-marxist because he emphasized the dialectical nature of historical materialism. It may appear to the decontextualized that this is post-marxism as a result of it emerging on the intellectual scene amidst the ubiquity of Althusser's structural and therefore determinist Marxism, but this is not the case. Gramsci is one of the best authors when it comes to examining the nature of a material and consequent Gramsci was an orthodox revolutionary historical materialist.
Gramsci is one of the best authors when it comes to examining the nature of a material and consequently cultural paradigm shift. Gramsci was also opposing himself to Lenin by arguing for the development and leadership of working class individuals against Lenin's desire to have a paradigm shift occur as a result of bourgeois professional revolutionists. Although he is against these two thinkers who were seen as emblematic of Marxism: he is not some revisionist coward.
Jan 03, Ingrid rated it it was amazing. These took me a long time to read and were labor intensive to read but were well worth the effort. They are very smart texts with very important ideas such as his view that revolution failed because it did not include the exploited classes.
Gramsci deals with people's drive for power and imposing various paradigms on society and the impact of these attempts,etc. Definitely an interesting, worthwhile read. May 09, Sarah Jaffe rated it it was amazing. I mean, it's Gramsci. Which means there's a lot of stuff that feels dated and it's a slog to get through but at the end you feel smarter and better prepared for struggle.
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Do wonder why we don't have a more updated Selections, but Jul 14, Leah rated it it was amazing. Jan 18, John Hess rated it really liked it. A very important read, but for a "selections" volume this edition still features a lot of material that could only be considered extraneous. Mar 18, Maxim rated it it was amazing. No any speculation, very concrete, attached to reality, practical as well May 13, Susie rated it it was amazing. Nov 01, Jherane Patmore rated it it was amazing Shelves: academic , prison-abolition. One of the most revolutionary things I read in undergrad.
Jul 14, Owain rated it it was amazing Shelves: politics , philosophy , marxism. Head of the Communist Party of Italy, thrown in Prison to die by the Fascist leader Mussolini, reading Gramsci is key to understanding the rise of Fascism. Particularly relevant today with the populist right worryingly on the rise in Britain and full-on Fascism complete with swastika tattoos and guns breaking out in other parts of Europe.
Gramsci can offer key insights and having witnessed Fascism become an ideology in his life time and the fact that the Italian Communist Party were the first vi Head of the Communist Party of Italy, thrown in Prison to die by the Fascist leader Mussolini, reading Gramsci is key to understanding the rise of Fascism. Gramsci can offer key insights and having witnessed Fascism become an ideology in his life time and the fact that the Italian Communist Party were the first victims of Communism ever to exist mean that Gramsci is probably one of the most qualified sources to examine.
In other words, the traditional parties in that particular organisational form, with the particular men who constitute, represent and lead them, are no longer recognised by their class or fraction of a class as its expression. When such crises occur, the immediate situation becomes delicate and dangerous, because the field is open for violent solutions, for the activities of unknown forces, represented by charismatic "men of destiny". I can't be bothered to write an overlong long review but Gramsci certainly deserves it. After Marx's critique of Capital and Lenin's work on revolutionary practice I think comes Gramsci's thoughts on the cultural battlefield.
The theory of cultural hegemony is vital to revolutionary politics. If the cultural hegemony doesn't run in your favour you're going to struggle in the battle for control of the state, the Soviets understood this but I think Communist culture within the USSR wasn't organic enough and came far too often from the state to the people and seemed too much like blatant propaganda. Not that that rendered it completely ineffective, why else would you get Russophiles in the west mad on Soviet memorobilia? As the vanguard of the proletariat a Party should be the most progressive part of that class but it shouldn't be working from above the rest of the class, it should be working within it to pull it in the right direction and that is how the new, revolutionary, cultural hegemony should be formed.
As revolution progresses society will gradually shift to the left meaning the cultural hegemony will also, cultural memes will tend to support the revolution more and more as progress is made. This will need to be bolstered and supported. Yet there will be a conscious effort to subvert this by the reactionary right and this will need to be tackled so as to lose the right-leaning influences leaving society free to develop towards the left. This far better suits the tactics of working within a class rather than commanding from above it.
Apr 03, Karlo Mikhail rated it really liked it Shelves: theory. Selections from the Prison Notebooks by Antonio Gramsci — reading this tome is enlightening and firms up my appreciation of Gramsci that is totally opposed to the liberal academic appropriation of the Italian communist thinker. But still, the work shine as a truly revolutionary document engaged in polemics against the Left Communism of Bordiga and company and their adventurist conception of a pure revolution as well as the Rightwing orthodoxy of the Second International that has seeped through some of the more hackneyed formulations of the Comintern under Stalin and Zinoniev.
What we read in The Prison Notebooks are reflections forged in ideological struggle as well as in the life-and-death struggle by the Italian comrades of the early 20th Century against reactionaries amidst the rise of Fascism and intensified white terror. Jun 03, Jeff rated it liked it. It's another one of those books that's very weird to "review", since it's such a classic and was so influential that it's hard to separate these writings from their cultural context.
What I mean is, I found myself very confused and with very little explanation throughout the book, since the extremely long introduction and almost all o It's another one of those books that's very weird to "review", since it's such a classic and was so influential that it's hard to separate these writings from their cultural context. So in the end, what I got from this volume was more a set of biographies of various people and parties in Italy since instead of an exegesis of Gramsci's thought.