Dear readers from all over the world. May your wishes become true, your dreams take your heart and your mind into your arms. Very happy new year to every one of you. Saturday the 17th of december. Dear faithful reader,. In a few words I'd like to wish you very peaceful, joyful and hopeful feasts at the end of this year.
All my wishes of happy devlopment during ! Happy flourishing for everyone in the family in ! I got a nice link to a presentation with a very strong and relevant message by a young 18 years old autistic boy Tom. Saturday, the 10th of december Dear so international readers,. For once, I shall introduce here a very good book by a french pedopsychiatrist Dr Bruno Gepner although it's only available in french I think.
Dr Gepner has done a very interesting work in the autistic field, he has become, you can guess that reading his book, a specialist of neurotypic and autistic brains. So he's able to enlight many factors of annoying devlopments in autistic brain. His first conclusions are encouraging. He has sum up his very relevant investigations with this slogan for autistic education:. I don't mind discuss with you about this book in english in case you're interesting for it and not easy reader of french books! I shall add that in working since 7 years with adults with different sort of troubles, I can very much underline these conclusions.
I wish you all the best in achieving that. Reading you soon. Dear All,. It occurs with a special link between an animal and a child. I could witness it myself, there is something magic between these different children or adults with challenges and this or that animal they cherish. Then I decided to search on this link eventualy. Please be patient I'm sharing to you few good reasons to read it soon.
In France, we are lucky because these books have been soonly translated in french. I hope you will enjoy reading this book or these two books as I did. Let me know if you've enjoyed it. Read you soon then. Missing date. In this website, I gave some importance to witnesses relating their own life and feelings as an autistic. Don't be surprised Temple Grandin is here with two of her books. They are much more from her, related to autism which are very interesting.
I hope to go further for you in collecting her precious observations. Daniel Tammet is a young english man with a very good expression capacity allowing us to enjoy specially to read him. In Born on a blue day he shares his own dynamic. Although is an autistic man from high heights with a fantastic gift to "feel" numbers and to associate every one with a color and a form then a list of numbers become a landscape. So a good tribute to his parents also. You'll find more witnesses in the videos section. I'm encouraging you to go through several ones. Her critic of ABA therapy is clever and relevant.
You'll find it in the videos section of this website. Following this link. Ask An Autistic. I wish you a very happy end of the week and read you soon hopefully. Dear english readers. I hope you 've enjoyed your summer season? We did enjoy it. How music can help our chidren? I was looking some answers in Musicophilia, Oliver Sacks's book. How the music reach our mind voluntarily or unvoluntarily?
How it is relayed by the brain? That's some of the questions Oliver Sacks has openned. Be patient and you'll be able to read a short sum up of this good book. Have an happy end of summer and a nice start of the school year, read you soon. Friday the 8th of july. At least we had a nice and warm day yesterday, the first since a very long time. The French soccer team is spreading in all the news mag here now that it has defeated the German and got access to the final. By the end of june, I was relating some facts about the very interesting impacts of music on personnal development.
The impact of it is just amazing. It can be very fruitful and also joyful and arising enthousiasm in our kids. A former colleague did experience with her 7 years old girl an intensive session listening music for 90mn and resting for 90 others, again 90mn of listening etc With Temple Grandin and Tomatis I 'm very much sure that a good music therapy session can have a nice impact on personnal developments. Of course they're right in encouraging the healing by hearing! Tuesday, the 10th of may Dear english reader,. Few words about Raun workshop here yesterday and his meeting in the evening.
But I really enjoyed it. Raun is a very charismatic guy full of this flame burning SRP's staff. Raun has insisted in the characteristic and quite controversal practice of the SRP: joining. He prevent us from doing a caricature of the "joining" which is different of a single imitation or a long staring of the kid expecting a sign or also a continuous flow of words.
Crucial because it leads to joining or building. It was very concrete again, very good. So we can expect that SRP will be a little better known in France now. For this last one, I could encourage many of my interlocutors as I had appreciated so much my 2 sessions with them. I hope to give you more about it soon.
- Battle For Dinosaur Planet.
- Yoji ishikawa photographic works yoh tsugumi one Yoji ishikawa photo library (Japanese Edition).
- "Avec l’Islande, la courbe est apparue dans notre travail".
- Die deutsche Landerziehungsheimbewegung am Beispiel von Hermann Lietz (German Edition).
- Selling Information Governance to the Business: Best Practices by Industry and Job Function.
Kaufman decide to come and share few days with parents and professionals here. Between the 6 and the 9th of may It's an event for you who take care of my writings since a while, although my english is shivering like the legs of a young lamb. I hope that his book will or has been already translated in your own langage. I've been very mouved by the description of his own path to challenge all the everyday fights in order to become someone and to share with our crazy world.
I can remember also the different steps, I should say the different ''doors'' that Temple Grandin described in her own growth to become the great orator she is today. I spent of a good amount of time reading two english books out of Son Rise program teachers. I was very sad in November to learn about William Hogan's departure. He has been our animator in the 2 sessions with Vencer autismo in Having blue dreams with every one of you.
Hugs and smiles. How to. Here we are in the nice promising season: spring!
Agriculture urbaine en Afrique de l’Ouest / Urban Agriculture in West Africa
Please let me know about your own way of reading it and what did you learn lidstening to his nice exprience in life,. I hope to read you soon. Please use the following address. Happy spring season to all. Monday the 22th of february Button pushing. Those who 've read Kate C. Not only the self but also the evaluation coming from others. How do we react for such or such attitude, specially this one which bother us the most. Let me know if you're enjoying it as I did.
Read you soon and perhaps I d'like to quote your words here also. So let me know if you'd like it. Happy Almost New Year. Dear readers,. Let me introduce a very successful man, peaceful and outstandingly well integrated in the society. He has a unique skill that makes him a unique artist. He is found of London, his town but he also travelled the world. Simon Baron Cohen, Uta Frith's colleague, also very famous for his study of autistic mind react in a video to his fantastic skill.
He's able to spend several days to complete a drawing out of his memory pictures. If you didn't go through his amazing artistic works please go to his website: Stephen Wiltshire. If you want to discover him in different videos. Read you soon on xoff7 hotmail. To discover how this website has grown days after days please click to page 2. Il y a du nouveau sur ce site. Et oui que le temps tourne. C'est au coeur du programme Son Rise: la confiance dans les parents. Back from few days of holidays I want to wish you a very happy year I hope you enjoyed these festive days according to your interest in sharing around it.
I hope you'll get health and that faith that makes you believe evrything is possible. In Raun Kaufman or Kate Wilde's book it 's a very incisitive point. Plan now a path full of confident steps in order to achieve a goal. Please enjoy this new year as if each morning consists in plugging a flower on the way. With my child? With my wife or my husband? With my colleagues or the volunteers? Have a fantastic new year because you'll taste each day as a fantastic day.
React or suggest more at. Dear English reader from all around the world. You'll come to know Uta Frith who dedicated her life studies to help to understand autistic mind. She 's the animator and the builder of this BBC2 program. She encouraged me working on this blog when it was starting. So I'm happy to introduce her to you for those who missed the opportunity she opened herself soon after it was available on videos provider. Happy path to the end of this year. Faithfully yours. Des mots aux phrases.
Des phrases au dialogue. Bleu Blanc Rouge. October the 29th. Avec un peu de chance, nous aurons une traduction dans les prochains mois. Introduction au livre de Temple Grandin. Introduction au livre de Kate C. Dear faithful readers,. You'll find it in scrolling down in the main menu on the right of this page.
Ce rapport est de 3 que nous allons utiliser comme coefficient de correction. Grossistes urbains — environ personnes ;. Destination du produit poulets vifs en ville. Ce secteur demeurera encore longtemps le principal pourvoyeur des villes en poulets de chair. L'organisation et la responsabilisation des acteurs de la production. Les actions techniques. Elles s'articuleront autour de :. Toutefois, l'influence de la campagne est tellement importante qu'elle inhibe la production urbaine de poulets de chair.
Ouandaogo Z. Zoundi, S. Vegetable production in Togo's peri-urban areas makes an important contribution to both the food demands and nutritional needs of the urban population. It also provides a regular income to producers throughout the year. Vegetable production can be a good example of integrated soil fertility management, combining the use of organic and inorganic fertilizers with irrigation and improved seeds. Such production benefits from a secure market, characterized by a stable, strong demand for produce combined with agricultural inputs which are supplied largely by the private sector.
Like Pieter van Dijk , our results confirm that an increase in employment among young men and women, a strong demand for produce, and attractive production profit stimulate the development of the vegetable sub-sector. The differences between types and kinds of growers can influence the mode of farm management in some cases, but they are not significant in most cases.
However, in contrast to women, men spend a part of funds reserved for fertilizer to higher labour. Still, the average net monthly income of growers is equivalent to the monthly salary of a high-level employee in the public administration in Togo. Production is very sensitive to the use of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Consequently, efforts to increase access to inputs by growers through the creation of an efficient network of distribution, loans and training must be undertaken. This would strengthen productivity and contribute to improved food security and soil fertility.
Aujourd'hui elle compte environ un million d'habitants avec une production de laitues voisine de 17 tonnes par an 1. Ces conditions ainsi que le manque de clients permanents et l'absence de fonds de roulement ne leur permettent pas de continuer l'exploitation de leurs jardins. Des domaines y sont disponibles pour les nouveaux exploitants noter que la superficie moyenne d'un domaine est de 62 ares contre 14 ares dans la zone 1, plus au centre-ville. C'est ce qui explique l'importance des exploitants permanents et l'absence de temporaires dans ces deux zones.
Tableau 4. Tableau 5. Tableau 6. Elle est respectivement de 0,24 ha et 0,35 ha. Une analyse par type d'exploitant, que nous n'avons pu faire faute de temps, pourrait permettre de mieux comprendre la situation. Tableau 7. Parts respectives des facteurs de production dans les charges totales annuelles d'exploitation, selon le sexe du chef d'exploitation. Le circuit de distribution est complexe. Mais le fumier n'est pas toujours disponible. Tableau 8. Tableau 9. Les autres comme le NPK sont en rupture de stock. Tableau Revue Grain de sel, No. Alexandratos, Nikos ed.
Dijk van , Pieter M. Diouf, S. Hydrochem Cameroun, B. Steichen, R. Because Senegal posesses limited natural resources required for a strong agricultural base, as early as in , the country invested heavily in horticultural activities to offset cereal shortages. Because pilot activities were localised in the periurban areas of Dakar, and given the proximity of commercial centres, the first set of such activities were found mainly around Dakar and nearby areas.
In , this amounted to about 64, tonnes. Demographic studies showed that young people between the ages of 20 to 30 years are the most active, suggesting a rather vibrant sector. It should be noted that about , m 3 of domestic waste water is evacuated daily in Dakar. The utilization of this resource could prove interesting. As well, a large number of urban producers use this untreated urban domestic waste water either as the only source of irrigation water or to supplement shallow wells.
The utilization of these waste water sources is not without some advantages, such as the reduction in the amount of water and other inputs for normal growth and development of plants. A major inconvenience, however, is the contamination of harvested products with pathogens. Our studies show that fresh vegetables found in the markets were contaminated with amoeba cysts, worm larvae and parasite eggs nematodes, tapeworms, Trichomonas.
If urban agriculture is to thrive, however, a policy orientation towards treated waste water reuse appears inevitable. This is especially true if the problem of water scarcity is to be resolved, particularly as the quantity of the resource that is available will only increase with the increasing urban population.
Results obtained after five years of research at the Camberene experimental station in Senegal showed that extensive systems of urban water purification functioned well, and that all of the techniques tested showed similar results in terms of reducing pollution. None, however, reached World Health Organization's WHO's established standards for reducing bacterial content of water for agricultural use. Nevertheless, the system can be improved by combining several different techniques arranged strategically within a chain, placing each in a position where it is most effective.
En effet, l'eau est souvent rare ou inaccessible. Elle avait pour objectif de mettre en vigueur une approche globale qui garantirait une croissance durable du secteur agricole. Il s'agit :. Les plus importantes sont les suivantes :. Les motopompes sont peu courantes.
Mode d'approvisionnement en eau par lieu. Figure 4. Mode d'utilisation de l'eau par lieu. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Type de culture par mode d'approvisionnement en eau. Figure 9. Utilisation des intrants par mode d'approvisionnement en eau. Figure Chastel, J. Dijon, France, p. Delvaque, J. Mara, D. Mbodj, S. Navez, S. Ngingue, M. Niang, S. This paper presents the various forms of horticultural activities and their spatial location within Cotonou.
The contribution of these activities to various development goals of the city — particularly waste management — was examined using appropriate participatory and survey methodologies.
Vegetables, ornamental plants and staple crop production were the three forms of horticultural activities observed. Each had positive as well as negative impacts on the city's drainage system, and its environmental planning and management approaches. The paper also presents evidence of both the current and potential contributions of these activities as they apply to solid and liquid waste management. Appropriate technical and policy recommendations were made to enhance the positive and minimize the negative impact of horticultural activities on the city's sanitation and overall development goals.
A careful analysis of the literature on urban agriculture UA in revealed three interesting observations:. In sub-Saharan Africa most research on UA came from anglophone rather than francophone countries. On the basis of a fewer number of research results, the prevailing assumption was that a similar situation exists in francophone countries. As yet, there is no consensus on the definition of peri-urban agriculture to clearly distinguish it from the classical rural agriculture in terms of distance from the city.
The environmental aspects of UA received far less attention than, for instance, food security and poverty alleviation issues. There may be environmental benefits unrecognized and under exploited. This may be the most dynamic aspect of urban agriculture. It seems likely that neither sustainable agriculture nor sustainable human settlements are feasible without urban agriculture.
These three issues guided the formulation of the objective of this study, as well as the choice of its thrust and the favoured entry points into UA discourse and research priorities. Its objective was to evaluate the real and potential contributions of urban horticulture to the sustainable development of Cotonou. In this context, sustainable development relates exclusively to urban environmental issues, particularly those of waste management and landuse planning, irrigation drainage systems, and the rational use of agricultural inputs.
An analysis of the positive and negative linkages between UA — particularly horticultural activities and these environmental issues — is the focus of this study. It is located in francophone West-Africa.
Nelson Mandela, une vie contre l'apartheid
This might prove to be an interesting subject matter for extended UA studies in Cotonou, but it was not included here, since this study was to be limited to horticultural activities. It was already familiar with environmental policies and projects, as they exist on both municipal and national levels.
Using a city map, neighbourhoods were identified, marked and recorded. With the aid of a walk through a transect strip through the neighbourhoods, an inventory of the types and numbers of horticultural activities was constructed. The information thus obtained was summarized and mapped with the aid of a GIS application tool.
Informal and formal interviews with individuals, groups and key informants were used to obtain additional information. The interviews and interactions covered a range of people, including workers from local and national government institutions, university and research institutions, and Non-Governmental Organizations NGOs. Available literature and previous studies were consulted to fill in some historical gaps, especially the growth of the sector with respect to time Aisso Three forms of horticultural activities HA were observed: vegetable production, ornamental plants production, and staple crops maize, and cassava production.
Vegetable gardens were found in almost every corner of the city, although highly concentrated in some ten large sites, close to the vegetable markets, where groups of individual cultivators operate as cooperatives. Staple crops were usually planted on locations with rather low security of tenure, such as a plot waiting for development where a neighbour hoped to get one or two harvests for their own consumption, before building started.
The maize produced was not usually sold or marketed. Ornamental plant production sites were located mainly along the sides of major road or in the most wealthy areas of Cotonou Figure 1. Plants are grown on the spot and watered daily. They are transplanted into plastic bags when they are big enough to be sold, primarily to richer urban residents, urban businesses and institutions who make aesthetic use of them. The larger sites also sell a variety of plant pots and some have young trees.
Many sites are related to nearby vegetable gardens, though usually there is a clear product and market specialization. A total of fifteen major vegetable growing farms or gardens were identified. These were permanent, well-maintained agricultural locations, with people cultivating them on a full-time, professional basis, every day of the week. Unlike much of the. Ornamental plants being cultivated and sold along roadsides in central Zongo-Ehuzu district.
Producers worked efficiently and had considerable knowledge of input use, and cropping techniques such as crop rotation and inter-cropping. Production from these sites probably constitutes about half of the vegetables consumed in Cotonou. They sell to individual market vendors who come not only to the gardens, but also to larger outlets like hotels.
In short, these farmers are professionals who know how to sustain their agricultural activities in a competitive way. Figure 2 shows a vegetable garden in Cotonou. It illustrates the professionalism of the farmers background plots ; how they use poor, marginal land foreground ; the tools that are used manual and nonpolluting ; and that groundwater levels in Cotonou are very close to the surface water pit to the right.
In contrast to the situation in eastern and southern Africa, practically no-one cultivated household plots, which were considered far too valuable to be used for agriculture in this densely populated city. It is also important to reiterate that the urban cultivators in Cotonou are very well organized, at least in comparison with other artisan groups. As well, they were the initiators of the Union of. One of the bigger, well-looked-after vegetable gardens of Cotonou. It uses the poor soil of the beach near the Hotel Sheraton.
Producers in the Sous-Prefecture of Cotonou USPP , which includes groups of fish-producers on the lake, urban livestock producers, and merchants. Their activities include training, looking for new locations and sourcing for inputs vegetable seeds. This is especially true in Cotonou. It alone produces half of all the waste in the country, because it is relatively wealthy notably because of its harbour.
The original soils of Cotonou are as sandy as a beach and very poor. This is the reason why no agriculture existed here prior to the foundation of Cotonou: thus, agricultural production exists because the city is here. Most horticultural sites in Cotonou use household and industrial waste — such as dredge from the local beer brewery or cottonseeds left at the harbour — as agricultural inputs of organic material.
Producers pay for all of these, finding urban waste a valuable and relatively cheap source of inputs. Chicken manure is their favourite, bought in 50 kg bags from poultry producers in and around Cotonou, but this is relatively expensive. They usually buy a truckload of garbage from the driver of a waste-collecting company, who delivers it to their site. The gardeners often let it lie for a while, so the organic materials decompose, which occurs fairly rapidly in the tropical climate.
Sometimes non-organic waste is removed, sometimes not. Experiments with proper composting have been made on several sites, but most were considered too difficult, too labour-demanding, or simply not sufficiently profitable. Toilet pits are emptied into septic tank trucks and brought here, some 20 km to the east of Cotonou Figure 3.
But the basin is too small and the sun evaporates too much water from it too quickly. Much of the sewage is dumped into the sea without being sufficiently cleared of pathogens, but so far there is no alternative. Unlike in the Sahel, cleaning the water here would have to be done to dispose of it properly, not for irrigation purposes, since in Cotonou the groundwater level is only at a maximum of 2 metres below the surface.
The gardeners simply walk into a pit with two empty watering cans and walk out again with two full ones. Still, sludge from the basins is very high in. Unlike some other West African cities, one of the biggest environmental problems in Cotonou is the abundance of water, especially during the two rainy seasons. Unfortunately, this proved not to be an ideal location. Frequent flooding constrained both development and long-term investments, while rapid expansion of the city produces such pressures on the urban space that many locations unsuitable for construction — notably the marshes — are being built upon.
This causes increased flooding in neighbouring locations and threatens the local ecological balance. Nevertheless, many houses have been constructed in such areas, but at other places people managed to create productive gardens despite the water problem, and merely stop production activities for a couple of months. To rid the city of this excess of rainwater, some very expensive drainage channels have been constructed Figure 4. Many more are needed and indeed planned at the municipal level, but for years now they have not been constructed,. An open concrete drainage channel polluted with street waste.
It seems unlikely that funds will be available soon for these works. In the meantime, the canals continue to be blocked and polluted by wastes. Historical and political events leave little maneuvering possibilities for government, particularly the CUC intervention in urban land-use layout. Moreover, tradition in Benin is such that people are very attached to their plots, rarely move house and, thus, they resent government interference in the utilization of such plots.
Consequently, construction is haphazard, with hardly any open spaces for city development. The situation is such that it would be difficult to change this land-use system. Only the roads are still government property, and these often have wide sidewalks, much of which are used by the informal sector.
A lot of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, seeds and other agro-inputs are available in the city, given the presence of both the harbour and airport. Some are imported directly by the gardeners cooperatives and the one in Kouhounou has a special shop which serves as such. They also have a lot of paper information on uses and dosages, and additional information can be obtained from the CARDER.
For maize and other staples, no chemical inputs whatsoever are applied, and production is mainly rain-fed. For ornamental plants, young trees and flowers, some pesticides are used and, in several cases, some chemical fertilizers too — though not much. In vegetable gardens — especially the better-organized ones with lots of European types of vegetables — it is common to use both pesticides and chemical fertilizers. Both are dissolved in water and sprayed onto the fields by means of a tank with a hand pump carried on the back, so dosage can be very exact.
High prices of fertilizer products like urea or NPK have encouraged cultivators to both search for and use alternatives. Such alternatives primarily include urban waste and some industrial wastes, notably beer brewing sludge, cottonseeds which are left in the harbour in large quantities during the season, bags of chicken manure bought at local or regional poultry farms, as well as any other type of animal manure, when available. In this climate, the use of pesticides is necessary, but the gardeners of Cotonou are very professional about it.
They respect the suggested period before treated material can be marketed and respect the prescribed dosages, often economizing by reducing such dosages. Some organic pesticides have been successfully introduced, notably from the neem tree, wood ashes and chicken manure — all of which are reputed to have insecticidal properties. Indigenous knowledge is certainly flourishing. A lot of solid waste is currently being recycled into fresh food through urban cultivation, without long distance transportation of such wastes, thus avoiding pollution and contributing to some environmental sanitation.
Nevertheless, there is still a long way to go in this respect. It may be necessary to sort out degradable from non-degradable. Figure 5. A price reduction to that of untreated waste may stimulate urban cultivators to be interested in compost. Transport would still remain a problem, but sites in Cotonou such as on the grounds where the garbage trucks are parked could be used. In cooperation with gardeners organizations and NGOs which specialize in waste recycling, a good plan of action could be put in place to serve the city.
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Given the problems at the SIBEAU sewage treatment site, there is a need to look for another technical solution that can both deal with larger quantities and eliminate dangerous pathogens in sewage. This could be costly. The company could afford the investment, but will do so only if it is profitable. Water hyacinth can sufficiently clean household wastewater for it to be used on trees and ornamental plants, and the water plants themselves can be fed to livestock. Also, fish breeding might prove possible, as in Asia and Central America.
Meanwhile, the dredge is very fertile as is apparent from the maize on the left side of the basin Figure 3. Dredge could be applied right there, since there is a large palm tree plantation just next to the site, where some maize and cassava are already flourishing. SIBEAU's company trucks are driving past daily, but also many trucks are transporting beach sand into the city to raise the ground level of sites before construction begins. And, along the road there is an unused railroad waiting to be used again.
A participatory approach, by inviting all stakeholders to the planning process, could provide fruitful solutions. It might prove worthwhile to involve the gardeners' associations in the upgrading of the city's drainage system, as well. For example, instead of digging an open channel in a wide street like the one in Figure 4 a simple ditch could be dug. Along both sides of it, a line of vegetable beds could be created. In return for the space and the proximity of open water, the gardeners could be made responsible for the maintenance of the ditch.
They could dig it out every so often to prevent it from closing again — and they would be gaining fertile soil in the process. They would also have something to gain by keeping the garbage out and thus educating the population not to pollute the open waters in the process. It would take up the same amount of space, enhance the urban environment — and it would be so much cheaper than constructing open channels out of concrete that an experiment like this would certainly be justified. The above section on drainage channels is already a good example of how to use urban space for cultivation while enhancing the environment.
There are also several informal waste dumps that could be transformed into gardens as well, just as the history of at least five garden locations in Cotonou have already proved. This would help prevent health hazards, upgrade the aesthetic value of the city and provide jobs in the neighbourhood.
Allowing and stimulating gardens in those places where flooding is frequent and which have a precarious ecological balance could prove to be a smart policy as well. It is not necessary to intervene with the use of chemical fertilizers for it is not posing an immediate environmental threat in Cotonou. Still, the provision of more high-quality organic fertilizers could certainly influence the market competition in a positive way. To improve the quality of the crops, rather than lowering the prices of imported agro-chemicals, it would be wise to stimulate the use of local organic inputs.
Luckily, a lot of expertise is readily available at the Songhaii Centre in Porto Novo and some other institutions. The introduction of new environment-friendly pest control systems should be quite easy if taken up by the well-organized CARDER in collaboration with the gardeners' cooperatives, for the agricultural producers have become one of best-organized artisan groups of Cotonou. They are well organized, capable professionals, and are also open to new ideas and reasonable environmental measures — as long as these do not harm their business.
They have a lot to offer to the city of Cotonou, their potential is hardly tapped — and they have a rightful place in the urban fabric. The garden is more than just a means of income: it is a way of life and it is their home. Aisso, F. Urban agriculture, progress and prospect: March pp. Asomani-Boateng, R.
Urban and rural communities in Africa have a long history of resource conservation through waste reuse and the application of composted organic waste for farming. This paper examines the concept of waste reuse urban farming WRUF as a unique local solution to address municipal solid waste problems in African cities.
It analyzes the rationale for WRUF ; the history, nature and status of traditional urban farming ; the constraints and implications of WRUF for urban planning ; and implementation problems. Finally, we suggest solutions to overcoming these problems. The management of urban solid waste constitutes one of the most immediate and serious environmental problems facing governments in African cities.
The conventional municipal solid waste management approach — based on collection and disposal — has failed to provide efficient and effective services to all urban residents. The urban environment steadily degrades due to waste which is not managed efficiently. Similarly open spaces, marketplaces are littered with solid waste.
In most cases drains are clogged or totally blocked and many compounds are hemmed in by solid waste. This deplorable situation is not unique to Lagos, but exists in most African cities. The situation in other African cities is not much different. When waste is not collected, unsanitary conditions develop and pose environmental and human health risks. The prevalence of parasites, tetanus, malaria, hookworm, cholera and diarrhea in most African cities is attributed to the unsanitary conditions in these cities Stephens and Harpham Songsore and McGranahan reveal that malaria, diarrhea, intestinal worms and upper respiratory tract infections were among the most common health problems reported at out-patient facilities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.
In the city of Accra, the major health problem is disease attributed to poor environmental sanitation, which is exacerbated by ignorance and poverty Ababio In Tanzania, Yhdego and Majura have reported that poor sanitation and improper waste disposal practices result in the spread of infectious diseases, which are the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality. Waste dumped into storm drainage channels, creeks, lagoons and other water impoundment points create serious environmental problems which can escalate into disastrous situations. The devastation of lives and property which occurred due to the floods in Ibadan, Lagos, Port Harcourt and Aba in Nigeria Kinako ; Filani and Abumere and Accra, Ghana in Daily Graphic, July 5, were attributed partly to an accumulation of refuse which blocked these cities' drainage channels.
The ineffectiveness of contemporary municipal solid waste management practices, which culminates in a number of health and environmental problems, has prompted the need to find effective and pragmatic solutions to waste management problems in African cities. This paper argues that there is a need to unite waste reuse and urban cultivation in African cities, because opportunities to integrate the two sectors exist in Africa's urban areas. Within this context, certain pertinent questions have to be addressed.
Why emphasize organic solid waste recycling? Is urban farming a permanent enough activity in African cities to be able to sustain organic solid waste recycling? What are the constraints and implementation challenges of waste reuse urban cultivation to urban planning in African cities? This paper considers these issues in three parts. The first examines the basis and role of re-using organic solid waste in African countries ; the second reviews the history and status of urban cultivation ; the third considers the constraints and implementation issues surrounding waste reuse urban farming WRUF for urban planning.
Solid waste management experts, consultants and researchers on Africa are increasingly recognizing the great potential of WRUF into urban farming to help reduce solid waste collection and disposal problems Chimbowu and Gumbo ; Egziabher ; Lee-Smith and Menon ; Abutiate In this context, organic solid waste is not perceived as something which is repulsive, useless, and dangerous, but rather as an under-used resource. It is a valuable material which can be recycled and used in urban food cultivation, thereby reducing the volume of undisposed waste.
The organic fraction includes raw kitchen waste generated in the preparation and consumption of food: food leftovers, rotten fruit, vegetables, leaves, crop residues and animal excreta and bones. The bulk of organic waste is generated by households, restaurants and markets. Fantola and Oluwande estimate that the Dugbe market in Ibadan, Nigeria generates kg of organic solid waste per year.
In Accra, Ghana, restaurants and markets combined generate 60 m 3 of organic solid waste yearly Lardinos and Klundert Table 1 based on Edmundson ; Sridhar et al. It is apparent that the biodegradable organic content is very high, due to the fact that reusable materials such as glass, hard plastics, metal scraps, paper and cardboard are retrieved and reused or recycled into valuable items such as lamps and sandals Enfo News ; Asomani-Boateng The waste is. Table 1. Municipal solid waste MSW composition in selected African cities.
Because the solid waste has an abundant organic content, much of it can be recovered for reuse as fertilizer. In these cities, there are many urban cultivators who are in need of such organic matter for soil conditioning. This provides an impetus for organic waste recovery. The ever-growing quantities of urban organic wastes in African cities — which at present amount to 0. There is an inexhaustible and readily-available supply of organic matter: left alone, it constitutes a major health and environmental hazard. Used as an organic fertilizer, however, it ceases to be the environment's principal contaminant.
Promoting the use of organic waste in food cultivation will not only benefit urban cultivators but also it will minimize the need for expensive imported chemical fertilizers, which in Ghana averaged 46 tonnes from — Ministry of Agriculture The question remains: is urban agriculture a permanent-enough activity in African cities to be able to sustain organic solid waste recycling? This question is examined in the discussion which follows.
Today, urban farming in African cities is complex and diverse. It involves the cultivation of food and non-food crops as well as animal husbandry including livestock, fowl and fish within intra and on the fringes peri of built-up areas of cities Ganapathy Historically, urban farming has been a major activity in African cities since pre-colonial days. According to Winters , in hot, often humid regions such as tropical Africa, the problem of storing food compounded the problem of transporting it. The fact that urbanization was so independent of trade was one more reason for cities to be self-sufficient in food.
Agricultural activities have influenced and determined urban land use and the morphology of cities in Africa. Cities such as Kumasi, Ghana and the Yoruba towns of western Nigeria were surrounded by a zone of intensive farming in which the majority of residents worked each day Bowditch ; as quoted in Winters Urban cultivation played a more important role in eastern and central African cities. The quarters of these cities were separated and the spaces between them used for farming Winters Colonial administrators' response to urban cultivation in African cities could be described as negative and hostile.
Consequently, urban cultivation and the rearing of animals were not permitted. In addition, it was assumed that since rural agriculture could provide the food needs of towns and cities, cultivation in cities was not necessary. The only plants that urban residents were permitted to grow were ornamental plants, plants that could beautify African cities and towns. Urban farming in contemporary African cities is largely unrecognized, unassisted, and in some cases, outlawed because of the supposed hazards associated with it.
Furthermore, urban farming is seen as not conforming to zoning regulations because in planning African cities colonial administrators ignored urban cultivation. Subsequently, hostility and repression have confronted the activities of urban farmers in a host of African cities. In Bamako, Mali, the authorities banned the cultivation of cereals in on the grounds that the tall stalks provide hiding places for bandits Diallo Kenyan authorities view urban cultivation as a blight on the urban landscape.
In Zambia, the harsh repression of urban cultivation in the 70s and 80s was justified on the grounds that urban farming facilitated the breeding of malaria-carrying mosquitoes Rakodi Despite the official neglect from the colonial period to the present day, it is clearly apparent across contemporary Africa that urban farming is widespread and is becoming a permanent feature of the landscape of many cities. Proof of its persistence and stability is reflected in the acreage of land farmed within and around the built-up space of African cities and by the number of urban residents engaged in urban agriculture.
A significant proportion of urban land in African cities is being cultivated Mosha In Daloa, Ivory Coast, land under urban cultivation increased from 52 ha in to ha in Mougeot An increasing number of urban residents are engaged in urban agriculture: two thirds of urban Kenyans are farmers Lee-Smith et al. The words of the Accra Metropolitan Assembly Tetteh and Botchwey reveal the importance of urban agriculture in the city:. Subsistence farming manifests itself in nearly every home and any unused space in the city.
Vegetables and food crops which are commonly planted combine effectively with poultry, piggery and fish farming to supplement the income of the metropolitan dweller. The foregoing discussion establishes the fact that urban farming is an age-old activity which continues to expand. Current conditions prevailing in African countries, including rapid urbanization, ineffective agricultural policies, crippled domestic food distribution, constrained government spending, removal of subsidies, wage cuts, soaring inflation, rising unemployment, natural disasters, and civil strife, will likely accelerate the growth of urban farming Mougeot A growing number of African countries have recognized the importance of urban farming and have taken steps to incorporate urban agriculture in their city plans.
The practice of reusing waste in food cultivation in Africa is not new. Most African countries have traditionally utilized various types of organic materials to maintain and improve the productivity, tilth and fertility of agricultural soils. The indigenous kitchen gardens, compounds and community gardening systems of West Africa have made extensive use of organic materials. Kitchen gardening involves cultivating a small parcel of land within the home or living compound immediately outside the dwelling unit Figure 1.
The kitchen gardens, which are operated as backyard gardens because of their proximity to the home, benefit from household organic refuse, manure and other organic waste materials to ensure continuous cultivation.
Les formations ABC diffusées dans de nombreux départements
Crops grown are those frequently required by the kitchen or household of the operator and usually consist of vegetables. The compound farming system Figure 2 also centres on the household compound. The land immediately surrounding the compound is intensively cropped with vegetables and staples using organic soil regeneration techniques which involve the use of household refuse and manure from livestock.
Among the Kwahus of southern Ghana, a portion of the land surrounding the compound is allocated for dumping organic solid waste from the household, which mainly consists of food and kitchen waste, and manure from chicken and livestock raised by the household. Dumping continues for at least two years and the pile is left for a year to undergo anaerobic decomposition. Community gardening Figure 3 is widely practiced in Ghana and requires the extensive use of organic solid waste in crop cultivation. In rural and small urban communities, waste management is undertaken on the basis of each neighbourhood looking after its own sector.
And in each neighbourhood, locations are selected for residents to dump their household waste. Dumping continues until the space is used up, then a new site is selected. The old dump is left idle to decompose and the site is allocated for gardening after two-to-three years. In Kano, Nigeria, the practice of using taki compost from manure, household waste, street sweepings and ash as fertilizing material by the city's peri-urban farmers has gone on for centuries Lewcock This represented between and tonnes of compost per day for peri-urban farms. It is estimated that in a 7.
Emphasis on recycling waste in food cultivation shifted in the s to the use of artificial fertilizers. With their newly gained independence, African countries vowed to modernize their economies based on the model of western, industrialized countries. Mass Market Paperback. Next page. Unlimited One-Day Delivery and more. There's a problem loading this menu at the moment.
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